Small States "service" components into purely professional and occupational activities; second, there tends also to develop a growing dissociation between high occupational strata and "conservative" political and social attitudes, creating generations of high executives with political and cultural "leftist views" and with orientation to participation in some of these new "permissive encla­ ves" or subcultures. In the political sphere and in the definition of the citizenship role there have developed tendencies to the redefinition of boundaries of collectivities; to growing dissociation between political centers and the social and cultural collectivities;, and to the development of new nuclei of cultural and social identity which transcend the existing political and cultural boundaries. Fourth, one of the most important institutional changes connected with these tendencies has been the development of various structural, semi-limi- nal enclaves within which new cultural orientations, new modes of search for meaning - often couched in transcendental terms - tend to be developed and upheld, partially as counter-cultures, partially as components of new culture. These enclaves, in which some people may participate fully, others in a more transitory fashion, may serve in some situations as reservoirs of revo­ lutionary activities and groups; but on the whole they tend to serve as loci or starting points of far-reaching changes in roles and cultural orientations. All these tendencies the most general have been connected with a very far-reaching shift from viewing either the technological-economic or. the political centers as the basic arenas of the charismatic dimension, implemen­ tations of the basic ontological and social visions. . The center, the political center, is still the major arena for the distribution of resources, but it no longer constitutes the major focus of the charismatic dimension and orientations of various social movements - or of large sectors of the society/ There took place indeed here a far-reaching decharismatiza- tion of the centers as well as of large-scale macro-societal units or frame­ works; VII. One of the most important results of these trends was the continuous wea­ kening of - especially European - nation-states, as seemingly self-enclosed, sovereign, autonomous units working in the Western and world state system. 115