Volltext: How do states without defence forces defend themselves?

airman to defend it. By sovereign representation, economy, population, land area or EEZ size 
the amount of the world that is undefended by military forces is significant and there are 
certainly interests and territory that requires defending. 
This paper will argue that despite the absence of military forces, it does not mean that these 
countries are undefended. The paper will examine the ways in which small states use non- 
military means to defend their sovereignty and interests in the modern world. These non- 
military means of Defence are varied and combine the natural environment of a state with a 
range of economic, political and diplomatic measures. The paper will look at the relationship 
between geography, history and strategic circumstances and how it influences a state’s 
decision not to develop military forces. It will go on to examine the international system and the 
degree to which it protects sovereign states and the potential for this system to be strengthened 
or weakened into the future. The paper will also look at the role of alliances and their effect on 
both Defence and sovereignty. Finally the paper will look at the risk posed by militaries to the 
very societies they are charged to protect and the effect of demilitarisation. The paper will 
conclude with an appreciation of what changes to the international system may mean for 
smaller states and their ability to defend themselves without recourse to force. In the interests 
of brevity the paper will examine these issues in detail through the lens of seven states that 
best embody the issues at play with the international system (Liechtenstein and Tuvalu), 
alliances (Iceland and the Pacific Compact States of Palau, Micronesia and Marshall Islands) 
and demilitarisation (Costa Rica).


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