Volltext: How do states without defence forces defend themselves?

the defence of the country in the event of emergency. 
2) Except in this event, armed groups may only be formed and maintained to the extent 
deemed necessary for the provision of the police force and the preservation of internal order. 
Further detailed provisions in this regard shall be laid down by law”. 
According to this constitutional provision not only does Liechtenstein not have a military it is 
also constitutionally banned from having one except in time of national emergency. 
In the post war era Liechtenstein initially struggled economically but worked hard to retain its 
separate sovereign status, though not yet as a member of the United Nations. As its wealth 
grew over the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, it began to join more and more international 
organisations including the Council of Europe, European Free Trade Agreement and the 
International Court of Justice. 
Liechtenstein's Prince and Government were keen to obtain the full badge of sovereignty that 
UN membership would bring but needed to overcome some domestic political resistance and 
ensure the international political climate was right to accept a small state like Liechtenstein. 
Some sections of the public saw UN membership as a risk to the peace and neutrality of the 
state, where UN membership could embroil Liechtenstein in international disputes which would 
otherwise not affect the state. The Ruling Prince Hans Adam Il was active in pushing for UN 
membership and over the course of the 1980s he made repeated references to membership in 
his speeches from the throne. The government supported UN membership but the population 
remained unconvinced. With a referendum unlikely to succeed legal opinion was sought to 
ascertain the constitutional requirement for a referendum and as a result the Government took 
the decision on its own. The UN Security Council and the General Assembly accepted 
Liechtenstein's application for membership and the Liechtenstein flag was raised in New York 
on 18 September 1990? 
Liechtenstein has become an active member of the UN and its various bodies advocating an 
agenda that underpins its sovereignty and self-determination. Liechtenstein is active in 
pursuing an agenda of Human Rights, Security Council Reform and Peace Security and 
^ Liechtenstein Constitution, retrieved from the University of Minnesota Human Rights 
Collection, http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/research/liechtenstein-constitution. pdf 
? Duursma, 174-190. 
?? Beattie, 158-162.


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