Volltext: The Transport Protocol of the Alpine Convention: Added Value to the Transport Policy of the European Community?

million people. More than two thirds of this surface and more than 80% of the Alp's 
population are part of the European Community 15 . The surface shares of any single 
country varies from 2 km 2 (Monaco) to 54.000 km 2 (Austria). 
The share of the Alpine territory of a country in relation to its total state territory 
illustrates the importance of the Alpine Convention for every single party. In the case of 
Monaco and Liechtenstein, this figure amounts to 100%, followed by Switzerland 
(65.4%) and Austria (64.4%), ending with Germany, where only 1.5% of the total 
territory is concerned 16 . 
Another interesting parameter, especially with regard to traffic issues, is the population 
density in the Alpine area 17 . Taking into account the whole Alpine area, this amounts to 
60 inhabitants/km 2 . In an international comparison, this figure is quite low. But if one 
considers only the constantly inhabited part of the Alpine area, the population density 
quadruples to 240 inhabitants/km 2 . This figure can be compared with that of the UK 
(240) or Germany (229). The average of the European Community amounts to 115 
inhabitants/km 2 . 
One of the merits of the Alpine Convention is to offer, as of its entry into force, a 
common European definition of what is called the Alps. Before, the notion of "the Alps" 
varied from one study to another, a phenomenon which is illustrated by the Commission 
publication “Europe 2000+” of 1995. In this study on a European spatial development 
perspective, the Alpine arc covered an area of 450.000 km 2 and extended from the north 
of Bavaria to the Emilia Romagna in the south. This perspective strongly influenced the 
economic assessment of the Alpine area, because huge centres on both sides of the Alps 
such as Strasbourg, Munich, Vienna and Milano were included. The risk is, that the 
specific problems of the mountainous regions in the very heart of the Alps become a 
15 U. Todter and P. Hablacher, "Randregion im Herzen Europas". in CIPRA (ed.). Alpenreport 1, 
Verlag Paul Haupt. Berne Stuttgart Vienna 1998. p.110. 
16 G. SCHWARZER. The Alpine Convention. A Graduate Thesis in Partial Fulfilment of the Masters 
Degree in Public International Law. Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian 
Law. Faculty of Law. University of Lund/Sweden. Lund 2002. p. 30. 
17 All the following figures are available on the website of the CIPRA: See supra, note 9.


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