Volltext: Geschichte erforschen - Geschichte vermitteln

Dan Michman 
processes — and not only in outspoken antisemitic circles, but also 
among proletarians who tended to socialism and communism.>! For the 
young Karl Marx in the 1840s on the one hand,* and for a variety of 
nationalist or Christian-social antisemites such as Heinrich von Trei- 
tschke, Adolf Stocker and the like on the other, the Jew personified both 
Capitalism and Communism (which was terpreted by its rivals as a 
materialist money-oriented ideology which aimed at removing capital 
from private to communal hands, i.e. gaining control over the free use of 
money by individuals). And in many of the new nationalist movements 
— not only the German one — for whom attachment to territory, to the 
land, meant rootedness which was a cornerstone of their group identity, 
the supposed money-orientation of the Jews represented their lack of 
rootedness and cosmopolitanism,* them being Luftmenschen.>* 
The Jews, who had been on the margins of society till the end of 
the eighteenth century, succeeded in the nineteenth century — thanks to 
the economic modernization process (which was based on the financial 
market), most clearly in Germany — in climbing the social ladder and 
entering the bourgeoisie, which stood at the core of the emerging new 
social order, and even in becoming leading personalities in the political, 
cultural and media spheres. Those circles who criticized the enormous 
economic, social and moral changes that occurred (especially in the sec- 
ond half of the nineteenth century) and were afraid of them, viewed the 
Jews as being both the driving force behind these destructive processes 
as well as the major group profiting and benefitting from it.5 These feel- 
ings were apparently vindicated by such academic scholarship as Werner 
Sombart’s Die Juden und das Wirtschaftsleben, in which he explained the 
assumed intricate relationship between capitalism and the Jews.>® If the 
51 See Fuchs, Die Juden in der Karikatur; Kotek/Silvain, La carte postale de I’ Affaire 
Dreyfus 2 la Shoah; Matard-Bonucci (ed.), ANTISEmythes. 
52 Marx, Zur Judenfrage; Nirenberg, Anti-Judaism, p. 3; Wistrich, A Lethal Obsession, 
pp. 107-115. 
53 Aly, Warum die Deutschen? Warum die Juden?, pp. 48-108; Almog, Nationalism 
and Antisemitism in Modern Europe. 
54 Berg, Luftmenschen. 
55 Nirenberg, Anti-Judaism, p. 439; Poliakov, Histoire de I'antisemitisme de Voltaire a 
Wagner, pp. 404-420. 
56  Sombart, Die Juden und das Wirtschaftsleben. This book was reprinted many times, 
and had an enormous impact on economic thinking about “the Jews”. For the Eng- 


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