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Economic Entjudung in Nazi Europe 
Netherlands, for instance, Dutch vocabulary was enriched during the 
occupation with the verb “pulsen”, meaning “emptying a Jewish apart- 
ment from all its furniture and movable belongings” after the Jewish 
family living in it was deported; the verb was derived from the name of 
the moving company Puls, which carried out the emptying of the apart- 
ments.” Governments-in-exile and resistance groups who planned post- 
war policies foresaw as from 1943 that a return of Jewish compatriots 
would give rise to enormous problems, among other things because of 
the expected unwillingness of those who benefited from the disappear- 
ance of the Jews to return possessions and goods to their original own- 
ers.’ And indeed, it is precisely because of that situation that the imme- 
diate post-war restitution process was so painful and accompanied with 
many antisemitic outbursts.’ 
And Jews were of course very much aware of what was done to 
them personally, and to their community as a whole. In the 1930s, Jew- 
ish organizations in Germany developed counter-strategies to the eco- 
nomic measures taken against them in a variety of modes.’ Later on, in 
Grenoble, France, a Centre de Documentation Juive Contemporaine was 
created in 1943 by some Jewish activists, first and foremost to document 
details of the plunder, confiscation and Aryanization in order to be able 
to reclaim Jewish property after the end of the war." In the free world, 
economic persecutions by the Nazis and by their associates were moni- 
tored and registered by a variety of Jewish organizations since the very 
first moments of the Third Reich.!? The Institute of Jewish Affairs (IJA), 
of Jewish Property During the Holocaust. For German spoliation activities in a spe- 
cific country see for instance: Loose, Kredite fiir NS-Verbrechen. 
7 de Jong, Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog, p. 336 (and 
see also the picture opposite p. 350). 
8 Bankier, Introduction, in: Bankier (ed.), The Jews Are Coming Back, pp. vii-xi. 
9 Bankier, The Jews Are Coming Back; Engel, Facing a Holocaust; Michman, Days of 
Holocaust and Reckoning. 
10 Barkai, From Boycott to Annihilation. 
11 Poznanski, The Establishment of the Centre de Documentation Juive Contempo- 
raine in France. 
12 For instance, by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (“the Joint”); 
see: Bauer, My Brother’s Keeper, pp. 112-113; and the primary sources mentioned 
in the bibliography of Barkai, From Boycott to Annihilation, pp. 213-218. Alfred 
Wiener, who had fled from Germany to the Netherlands immediately after the Nazi 
ascent to power, initiated, in conjunction with Prof. David Cohen, the establishment 


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