The Adoption of Electronic Banking: Evidence from Liechtenstein 
  
  
Distance to headquarters Distance to branch Eschen Distance to branch Balzers 
  
  
Municipality (km) (min) (km) (min) (km) (min) 
Ruggell 18.1 17 7.0 10 26.2 22 
Schellenberg 18.7 17 7.7 10 26.8 22 
Gamprin-Bendern 12.8 11 1.1 2 20.9 16 
Eschen 14.4 14 0.8 2 22.5 20 
Mauren 16.0 16 2.3 A 24.1 21 
Nendeln 8.4 14 2.5 4 24.2 21 
Schaanwald 10.5 18 4.1 6 25.9 23 
Planken 12.8 25 13.8 23 20.8 36 
Schaan 4.4 10 7.0 9 17.5 17 
Vaduz 0.7 2 13.4 11 8.7 13 
Triesenberg 11.9 19 23.8 27 14.7 22 
Triesen 3.2 6 15.1 14 5.1 6 
Balzers 11.3 11 20.8 15 0.1 1 
  
Table 4.3. Distance of Municipalities to each bank branch. 
Notes: The table above shows the distances, from each municipality to the three bank branches of the 
Liechtensteinische Landesbank AG, in kilometres (km) and minutes (min). Also, all distances refer to the 
distance by car. The municipalities, where a bank branch is situated are written in italics and to highlight 
the closest bank branches for each municipality, those distances appear in bold. 
Source: Google Maps 
six minutes. However, there is quite a variability in this measure if we consider that the maximum 
distance amounts to 23 minutes. 
  
  
Variable Obs. Mean Std. Dev. Min. 25% 50% 75% Max. 
Distance to headquarters (km) 31511 8.84 5.82 0.70 3.20 11.30 144 18.70 
Distance to headquarters (min) 31511 10.88 5.22 2 6 11 16 25 
Distance to closest branch (km) 31511 3.21 3.20 0.10 0.7 2.30 4.40 12.80 
Distance to closest branch (min) 31511 5.78 4.90 1 2 4 9 23 
  
Table 4.4. Summary statistics of the distance variables. 
Notes: The four variables on the table above are meant to measure the distance between a client and 
the LLB headquarters, as well as to the closest possible bank branch. The table reports the number of 
observations, the mean, the standard deviation in addition to the minimum and maximum values of each 
variable. To provide an indication about the distribution, we also report the 25th, 50th and 75th percentile. 
Source: Own table, based on the LLB dataset 
Distance measures and Electronic Banking Adoption Figure 4.3 clearly shows the differ- 
ences in the average distance to the LLB headquarters and the closest LLB branch divided by 
the two groups of e-banking adopters and others. The figure shows a bar chart for each distance 
measure. As we expected, all four measures show larger distance values within the e-banking user 
group. Overall, with regard to these bar charts, we can say that these findings are in line with our 
third hypothesis that larger distances to a bank branch are associated with a higher probability of 
e-banking adoption. 
The previous explanations displayed evidence pointing into the direction that our hypotheses 
are accurate. However, this conclusion comes more or less only from eyeballing the data and 
descriptive statistics. The following comments focus on statistical inference methods to check for 
differences in the mean of various outcome variables. 
University of St.Gallen 19
        

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