(Sarros, Gray, Densten, & Cooper, 2005, p. 160). This study identified varying results across differing 
industry segments (for example between manufacturing and the services sector) however a 
relationship between dimensions such as organisation stability/social responsibility and innovation 
was observed. 
Taking into account the findings of Sarros et al (2005) in relation to the manufacturing sector in 
Australia, Su et al (2009) investigated the culture in 500 of these organisations In Australia, 
predominantly from the perspective of employee organisational commitment or in effect their 
alignment with the organisation's goals and values (Sarros, Gray, Densten, & Cooper, 2005). Su et al 
(2009) found a positive correlation between enhanced employee organisational commitment and the 
cultural dimensions of stability and a focus on delivering outcomes/meeting objectives. Stability in 
manufacturing organisations is an issue in Australian firms due to the ongoing decline of this sector in 
the broader Australian economy over the past two decades (Reserve Bank, 2016). 
Organisational culture in Liechtenstein 
At the beginning of last century, Liechtenstein was a poor agricultural country however due to the 
country's long term political stability and an entrenched spirit of entrepreneurial endeavour, the small 
country has built a highly performing economy with the highest Gross Domestic Product per capita in 
the world (Schuessler, Schaper, & Kraus, 2014, p. 109). Unlike other countries that have seen a 
decline in manufacturing, Liechtenstein has seen steady growth in its manufacturing sector over the 
past 30 years (Brunhart, 2013, p. 70). This entrepreneurial culture, perhaps born out of economic 
necessity, commitment to innovation and research & development is evidenced by one of the highest 
global rates of patent registration per capita (Schuessler, Schaper, & Kraus, 2014, p. 111). 
The commitment to innovation in the culture of organisations in Liechtenstein was considered by 
Dana and Dana (2003) where they noted that a culture of entrepreneurship and innovation (based on 
their assessment of the work of Weber (1956)) showed cultural attributes of frugality, an ability to 
readily change and adapt as well as delayed gratification (Dana, 2003, p. 297). The Government of 
Liechtenstein also seek to foster and support innovation with a regulatory framework that allows for 
the rapid establishment of companies and favourable taxation rates (Dana, 2003, p. 299). The benefits 
of a strong alignment and cultural homogeneity between the Government and companies in 
Liechtenstein was also observed by Kasper (2013, p57). 
A case study that illustrates the commitment to a values based culture and inculcating innovation 
relates to one of the largest companies in Liechtenstein, global concrete and construction products 
manufacturer, Hilti. Hilti has some 20,000 employees worldwide with 1700 based at the company's 
headquarters in Liechtenstein (vom Brocke & Sinnl, 2010). The company exhibits a values based 
culture where defined values are embodied in the performance culture of the organisation including 
as part of the selection process for engaging new employees and in goal setting for each worker. Hilti 
also regularly measure and monitor the health of their organisational culture through employee 
engagement surveys and embodies a culture that supports and encourages innovation (vom Brocke & 
Sinnl, 2010). Hilti also has an ongoing commitment to the Business Process Management or BPM 
methodology where managers closely scrutinize and optimise operational processes. 
Perhaps uniquely for any country in the world, approximately half of Liechtenstein's workforce is 
comprised of citizens of its neighbours (mainly Austria and Switzerland), workers who commute back 
and forth across an international border everyday they drive to work (Schuessler, Schaper, & Kraus, 
2014). Therefore the culture within its organisations must be an amalgam of cultures, influenced by 
Organisational Culture — a contrast between Australia and Liechtenstein Page 5 
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