Abstract 
This paper explores the concept of culture, its dimensions and elements, 
across two very different nations, Australia — a nation rich in natural 
resources and Liechtenstein — the nation with the highest Gross Domestic 
Product per person in the world. 
This paper provides a comparison at the national level of the key 
characteristics of both countries which in turn defines the context within 
which organisations operate and develop their own culture. 
Drawing on a broad range of literature on organisational culture, this 
paper then seeks to define the common organisational culture elements in 
each country and identify where these are consistent or contrasting. 
Author's Note: 
In addition to Australia, the comparator country for this paper (Liechtenstein) was chosen for three 
main reasons. 
Firstly, the Author has a family association with Liechtenstein and has visited the country on several 
occasions. 
Secondly, whilst Liechtenstein is not a country that attracts significant attention in Australia, however 
its stark contrast to Australia, which will be explored in this paper, provides an ideal opportunity to 
consider organisational culture — its origins and effects. The Author sees this breadth of perspective as 
valuable in developing an understanding about this topic. 
Finally, Liechtenstein has the highest Gross Domestic Product per capita in the world (Central 
Intelligence Agency, 2017), given this ongoing economic success, the Author wants to explore if there 
are any lessons that can be learnt about the culture of organisations in Liechtenstein that contribute to 
this success. 
Organisational Culture — a contrast between Australia and Liechtenstein Page 2 
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