Volltext: Organisational culture

its immediate geographic region (The State of Vorarlberg in Austria and the Swiss Canton of St. 
Gallen). Avery et al (1999) considered the unique characteristics of organisational and management 
culture in German speaking countries (Avery, Donnenberg, Gick, & Hilb, 1999). Avery et al 
commented that from an organisational culture context, the German speaking nations of Europe 
exhibited values and cultural traits (including loyalty to the organisation and corporate responsibility) 
somewhere between the United States and Japan — and had a product orientation rather than 
customer orientation (Avery, Donnenberg, Gick, & Hilb, 1999, p. 14). These cultural traits are also 
evident in Liechtenstein — particularly a strong product orientation noting the country's focus on 
highly specialised manufacturing (such as dental ceramics). Equally Avery et al (1999) observed an 
organisational preference within German speaking countries to adopt systems thinking management 
models (Avery, Donnenberg, Gick, & Hilb, 1999, p. 15), as evident in the Hilti case above where the 
company is committed to the Business Process Management methodology (vom Brocke J., 2015). 
Conclusion and lessons learned 
Having assessed the literature related to the organisational cultures in both Australia and 
Liechtenstein, some similarities arise despite the many differences that exist between these two 
countries. The cultural dimension related to innovation was evident in both nations, perhaps as a 
result of the economic necessity for organisations to change and adapt in a changing world economy. 
The concept of social responsibility and providing a supportive environment for employees was also 
common to both countries although some variability was noted in this dimension depending on what 
economic sector an organisation belong to. 
There were contrasts in organisational culture observed from the literature as well. For the dimension 
of organisational stability, Liechtenstein has had continuous growth in its manufacturing sector over 
the past 30 years whereas Australia has seen an ongoing decline in this sector. For organisations in 
Liechtenstein, the stability evident in their organisations supports an entrepreneurial mindset and an 
ability to change and adapt. Conversely, in Australia where uncertainty exists within sectors of the 
economy (such as manufacturing) the organisational culture is likely to be very different to a firm in 
Liechtenstein with a culture built around survival rather than aggressively pursuing growth. 
Considering the cultural dimensions observed in both countries and relating this back to the cultural 
types described by authors such as Douglas and the Grid Group model, Liechtenstein exhibits 
organisational cultures that collectively could be considered in the Egalitarianism type (based on their 
strong bonds and high degree of similarity) whereas Australia, with its multiple differences (perhaps 
derived from a multicultural society and diverse economy) and relatively strong bonds, could be 
classed as sitting in the Collectivism type. A comparison can also be made using Handy's model where 
Liechtenstein shows a strong ‘Task’ focus (as illustrated in the Hilti Case Study) with its highly 
specialised manufacturing and emphasis on Business Process Management (BPM). Australia by 
contrast shows a greater focus on ‘Roles’ and an emphasis on accountability. 
Organisational Culture — a contrast between Australia and Liechtenstein Page 6 


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