Volltext: Elections in Europe

1160 Liechtenstein 
1.3 Current Electoral Provisions 
Sources: Constitution of 1921 (regulates among other things the compe- 
tences and obligations of public bodies, political rights, voting age, reg- 
ulations on referendums); Volksrechtegesetz of 1973 (regulates voting 
Suffrage: Universal, secret, and direct suffrage is in place. Voting age is 
set at 18. Exclusions from franchise are regulated by law and include for 
example convicted felons. Voting is compulsory. The actual ballot takes 
place in designated facilities in the municipalities (six in the Oberland 
and five in the Unterland). Absentee voting via letter is possible for all 
citizens since 2004, whereas before it was restricted to citizens residing 
outside the country, the elderly and the sick. 
Elected national institutions: The national parliament (Landtag) is 
elected for a four year term. It consists of 25 delegates, 15 of which are 
elected in the constituency of Oberland and 10 in Unterland. For every 
three delegates in a constituency, a party has the right to one substi- 
tute/deputy, but there is at least one substitute/deputy per faction and 
constituency. In case of an early end to a term due to resignation, illness 
or death the highest ranked deputy of the respective party receives the 
mandate. The government is appointed by the prince upon suggestion of 
Nomination of candidates: Nominations can be submitted up to two 
weeks after elections are publicly announced. Each nomination must be 
supported by at least 30 voters in the constituency. The supporters must 
supply their signature and the authenticity must be officially certified. 
Nominations must indicate the name of the group of voters, usually the 
party's name. Candidates registered on these lists must have given their 
explicit consent. 
After the nomination lists have been examined and inspected, they 
are printed as the official ballots with one ballot per party and constitu- 
Electoral system: Parliament is elected according to a PR system with 
open lists in two constituencies of 15 and 10 representatives respective- 
ly. Seats are allocated at the constituency level. Voters can delete candi- 
date's names and thereby influence the ranking of the party list. Also, 
they may add candidate names from other lists (panachage). Deletion of 


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