Liechtenstein Politische Schriften
can best guarantee their interests within an enlarged Union. How can small states guarantee success in the institutional debate and individual policy sectors? What procedures and tactics are best suited for small states to maximise their capacity of influence within the EU? It has to be borne in mind that influencing day-to-day EU policy-making, in par - ticu lar sectors, may be as important as influencing in treaty reform. Small states are said to be more vulnerable than large states in poli- tical, economic and strategic terms.13They are vulnerable to interna tio - nal pressure and have to adjust domestically in order to cope with poli- tical and economic international consequences.14Also, small states are seen to have fewer economic, military, administrative and diplomatic re- sources as regards influencing decisions made at the international level.15 Thus, small states cannot be expected to be able to exercise as much in- fluence in international institutions such as the European Union as large states. The key question for all small states is how to overcome the vul- nerability associated with their smallness. Representation of EU mem ber states in the Union’s day-to-day decision-making processes, like in other international institutions, is mainly by national administra tions. Politicians may take the final decisions and represent their nation in par- ticular forums within international organisations. However, it is the bu- reaucrats who are most often responsible for the daily work with in in- ternational forums. The EU is no exception. It is of fundamental impor- tance that national administrations are capable of working effi cient ly within EU institutions. It takes time for all national administrations, small and large, to adapt to EU membership. The ability of small administrations to parti ci - pate in the Union has often been put in doubt and policy-makers within the EU have been sceptical about the capacity of new small mem bers to engage in the complexity of EU business. The EU, for instance, put consi- 336Baldur 
Thorhallsson 13For instance, see Archer/Nugent, Introduction: Small States and the European Union. Current Politics and Economics of the European Union, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2002. Commonwealth Secretariat, A Future for Small States. Overcoming Vul - nerabi lity. Report by a Commonwealth Advisory Group, 1997. Commonwealth Secretariat, Vulnerability: Small States in The Global Society, Report of a Com mon - wealth Consultative Group, 1985. 14Katzenstein, Small States in World Markets: Industrial policy in Europe, 1985. Ibid, Corporatism and Change: Austria, Switzerland and the Politics of Industry, 1984. 15For instance, see Handel, Weak States in the International System, 1981; Thor - hallsson, 2000; Archer/Nugent, 2002.


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