Liechtenstein Politische Schriften
a good example of international outsourcing and/or cooperation among smaller countries, since there are three campuses: one at Mona in Jamaica, one at St. Augustine in Trinidad and one – as mentioned above – at St. Michael in Barbados. Finally, the University of Belize is designed to offer a relatively broad range of subjects, but the university was only established recently so that it is difficult to judge its status as a «full university», since development is ongoing.85 With regard to statistics, 18 out of 21 countries comply with theo- retical expectations. With the exception of Belize and Brunei, we expec- ted all VSC not to have their own full university. Hence, our hypothesis of VSC not operating their own full university is confirmed. The esta- blishment of full universities seems to pose serious problems for VSC due to the large number of possible «consumers» which are required to operate the university on efficient scales. There is, again, a clear disadvantage for islands concerning higher education, since distances naturally play an important role. On the con- trary, it is not very difficult for young Luxembourg or Liechtenstein cit - izens to attend universities in Switzerland, Austria, Germany or France. The same argument applies to Andorra, with its relatively small distan - ces to French and Spanish universities, as well as to San Marino, which is near large Italian universities, and Monaco, not far from French uni- versities. A language problem rarely arises, because there is often no dif- ference between the language spoken in the VSC and the one spoken in an adjacent country where at least some full universities are based. Nonetheless, institutions of tertiary education are rare in small is- land economies, which is another indicator of the existence of consider- able economies of scale. Note that – to our knowledge – none of the small island economies which we did not select due to a too low per ca- pita GDP operates a full university. Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Samoa, the Salomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu are, like Nauru, served by the University of the South Pacific at Suva, Fiji. Since the Fiji Islands are also a small country, the University of the South Pacific is, 96 
Very small countries: organizational choice and international outsourcing 85Almost every VSC has at least one institution of tertiary education, such as institu - tions for educating teachers, health care workers or similar professions. Not all of them are listed in Table A.11, because it is, generally, difficult to obtain information on smaller institutions, and it is sometimes difficult to assign education institutions to the right category, because they appear under different terms like «school», «col- lege», «vocational college» (Fachhochschule)or «university».


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