Liechtenstein Politische Schriften
These problems, however, have not been daunting enough to pre- vent approaches and some success in the provision of public goods on a global scale. Kaul et al. (1999) distinguish between six fields where at- tempts to provide global public goods have been numerous. Some of these attempts have been successful: equity and justice (e.g., internatio- nal courts), market efficiency and stability (e.g., WTO, IMF), environ- ment and cultural heritage (e.g., ozone depletion, CO2reduction), health (WHO, epidemiological surveillance), knowledge and information (in- ternet, scientific research) as well as peace and security (peace keeping, UN, Interpol). Increasing efforts in regional integration led to the provision of more and more public goods at a scale between the global and the na - tional level. Some of them, clearly, are similar to the public goods, which are provided on the national and on the global level and, therefore, con- stitute substitutes. There is, however, an expanding set of public goods provided on the regional level which are complements to existing public goods on the national and global levels. Moreover, the European Union is an example of the exclusive provision of public goods on the regional level, the most prominent of which  is the euro, the common currency of 12 EU countries. It is noteworthy that a national view of public good provision would not reach far enough. The process of increasing integration be - tween countries is not only relevant for international trade of private goods and foreign investment. Actually, the traditional view of publicly provided goods which cannot be consumed across a country’s border is somehow outdated for adjacent countries with good relationships. It seems that the importance of jurisdictional borders for the consumption of public goods is gradually declining. In passing note further that we dwell upon the subject from a posi- tive point of view, since we only state that there are public goods which are provided on different jurisdictional levels, without discussing for the moment the more important question, the level on which these public goods should be provided. Of course, we will come back to this ques - tion in the next sections, where we also analyze spatial and jurisdictional characteristics of publicly provided goods in greater detail, especially in connection with international outsourcing. 74 
Very small countries: organizational choice and international outsourcing


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